Purpose: Endoscopic injection of dextranomer-hyaluronic acid copolymer is an accepted initial procedure to correct vesicoureteral reflux. Less data are available on its role in treating failed ureteral reimplantation. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the charts from 2002 to 2008 and identified 21 patients (26 ureteral units) with persistent reflux after reimplantation. Results: Mean age was 7 years (range 2 to 13). Mean followup was 2 years (range 10 to 46 months). Of the 17 patients with a single system ureteral reimplantation was extravesical in 9 and intravesical in 8 with tapering performed in 5. Three patients underwent reimplantation of duplex systems and 1 underwent reimplantation due to ureterocele. Residual reflux grade was 1 to 4 in 3 (11%), 17 (65%), 3 (11%) and 3 ureteral units (11%), respectively. Dextranomer-hyaluronic acid copolymer was injected transurethrally. The mean volume injected was 1.2 ml (range 0.7 to 3). After 1 injection reflux resolved in 15 patients (71%) or a total of 20 ureteral units (77%), including 12 of 14 (86%) extravesically and 8 of 12 (66%) intravesically reimplanted units. The resolution rate improved to 84% after multiple injections. Two of the 6 patients with reflux after 1 injection had a single system, 2 had an obstructive megaureter with tapered reimplantation, 1 had a duplicated system and 1 had a ureterocele. Three of the 5 patients with persistent reflux underwent revision surgery. Ureteral abnormalities other than reflux and tapered reimplantation were associated with a statistically significant inferior success rate. Conclusions: Dextranomer-hyaluronic acid copolymer injection is an efficacious salvage procedure for persistent reflux after ureteral reimplantation. The success rate is inferior for ureteral abnormalities other than primary vesicoureteral reflux and after tapering.
- dextranomer-hyaluronic acid copolymer
- salvage therapy
- vesico-ureteral reflux