A compressed air diver suffered pulmonary barotrauma with arterial air embolization; resuscitation was unsuccessful. Attempts at resuscitation included mouth-to-mouth ventilation and cardiac massage. A chest radiograph taken during resuscitation revealed free intraperitoneal air. Postmortem examination showed rupture of the stomach. The two possible aetiological factors-Larotrauma of ascent and cardiopul-monary resuscitation-are discussed.