Roadmap on exsolution for energy applications

Dragos Neagu*, J. T.S. Irvine*, Jiayue Wang, Bilge Yildiz, Alexander K. Opitz, Jürgen Fleig, Yuhao Wang, Jiapeng Liu, Longyun Shen, Francesco Ciucci, Brian A. Rosen, Yongchun Xiao, Kui Xie, Guangming Yang, Zongping Shao, Yubo Zhang, Jakob Reinke, Travis A. Schmauss, Scott A. Barnett, Roelf MaringVasileios Kyriakou, Usman Mushtaq, Mihalis N. Tsampas, Youdong Kim, Ryan O’Hayre, Alfonso J. Carrillo, Thomas Ruh, Lorenz Lindenthal, Florian Schrenk, Christoph Rameshan, Evangelos I. Papaioannou, Kalliopi Kousi, Ian S. Metcalfe, Xiaoxiang Xu, Gang Liu

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Over the last decade, exsolution has emerged as a powerful new method for decorating oxide supports with uniformly dispersed nanoparticles for energy and catalytic applications. Due to their exceptional anchorage, resilience to various degradation mechanisms, as well as numerous ways in which they can be produced, transformed and applied, exsolved nanoparticles have set new standards for nanoparticles in terms of activity, durability and functionality. In conjunction with multifunctional supports such as perovskite oxides, exsolution becomes a powerful platform for the design of advanced energy materials. In the following sections, we review the current status of the exsolution approach, seeking to facilitate transfer of ideas between different fields of application. We also explore future directions of research, particularly noting the multi-scale development required to take the concept forward, from fundamentals through operando studies to pilot scale demonstrations.

Original languageEnglish
Article number031501
JournalJPhys Energy
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1 Jul 2023


  • catalysis
  • energy
  • exsolution
  • exsolved nanoparticles
  • oxides


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