Risk Factors for Epithelial Ingrowth Following Microkeratome-Assisted LASIK

Asaf Friehmann, Michael Mimouni, Arie Y. Nemet, Tzahi Sela, Gur Munzer, Igor Kaiserman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

PURPOSE: To analyze the incidence and risk factors associated with epithelial ingrowth following uncomplicated microkeratome-assisted LASIK. METHODS: All patients who underwent microkeratome-assisted LASIK between January 2006 and December 2014 in a single surgical center were reviewed. Epithelial ingrowth cases were identified and associated factors were assessed. RESULTS: Overall, 149 (0.49%) of 30,574 cases developed epithelial ingrowth. The epithelial ingrowth group was older compared to controls (35.3 ± 12.3 vs 31.7 ± 10.3 years, P = .001) and had a higher percentage of moderate to high hyperopia (13.7% vs 5.3%, P < .001), early postoperative flap slippage requiring flap repositioning (9.4% versus 2.8%, P < .001), or flap lifting for enhancement (48.6% vs 4.3%, P < .001), were treated with a smaller optic zone (6 mm) (37.7% vs 15.2%, P < .001), with a Moria M2 microkeratome (Moria SA, Antony, France) (70.1% vs 55.5%, P = .02), by low volume surgeons (n < 1,000) (5.8% vs 1.3%, P < .001), in a lower operating room temperature (22.3 ± 1.8 vs 22.8 ± 1.6, P = .005), and with a greater maximum ablation depth (67.3 ± 29.7 vs 57.3 ± 30.3, P < .001). There was a high incidence of epithelial ingrowth in the enhancement group compared to primary LASIK (4.8% vs 0.2%, P < .001). The time between treatments (primary and enhanced LASIK) was significantly greater in the epithelial ingrowth group (mean: 1,110 ± 870 vs 626 ± 662 days, P < .001). There was a significant rise in epithelial ingrowth rates as time between primary and enhancement LASIK increased, peaking at 4 to 5 years (P < .001). In multivariate analysis, flap lifting for enhancement (odds ratio [OR] = 19.5, P < .001), 6-mm optic zone (OR = 2.2, P < .001), moderate to severe hyperopia (OR = 2.4, P = .005), greater ablation depth (OR = 1.005, P < .001), and low volume surgeon (OR = 3.9, P = .01) were associated with epithelial ingrowth (total R2 = 15.4). CONCLUSIONS: The potential risk factors described above may forewarn surgeons as to which individuals merit closer observation for this complication.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)100-105
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Refractive Surgery
Volume34
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2018

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