Aim: We aimed to study the risk factors for first and subsequent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection among patients who are CMV seropositive and underwent allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Methods: We performed an historical cohort study of all sequential CMV-seropositive patients who underwent allogeneic HCT at a single center. Between May 2007 and December 2012, 121 patients fulfilled inclusion criteria. Results: Multivariate model identified myeloablative preparative regimen (hazard ratio [HR] = 4.297, P = 0.033) and acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prior to infection (HR = 5.091, P = 0.021) as risk factors for first CMV infection. The cumulative incidences of first CMV infection for patients with 0, 1, and 2 risk factors were 52%, 71%, and 91%, respectively. Multivariate analysis identified the diagnosis of lymphoma/myeloma (HR = 3.5, P = 0.049) and GVHD (HR = 1.280, P = 0.045) as risk factors for subsequent CMV infection. High graft CD3 stem cell dose was associated with a trend of lower rate of subsequent CMV infection (HR = 0.543, P = 0.056). The cumulative incidences for subsequent CMV infection in patients with 0, 1, and 2-3 risk factors were 11%, 41%, and 77%, respectively. Conclusion: In conclusion, in CMV-seropositive patients, myeloablative conditioning and acute GVHD are risk factors for first CMV infection, while lymphoma/myeloma, ongoing GVHD, and low CD3 graft content are risk factors for subsequent infection.
- Allogeneic transplantation
- Risk factors