Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is among the most common genetic metabolic lipid disorders characterised by elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels from birth and a significantly higher risk of developing premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The majority of the current pediatric guidelines for clinical management of children and adolescents with FH does not consider the impact of genetic variations as well as characteristics of vascular phenotype as assessed by recently developed non-invasive imaging techniques. We pro-pose a combined integrated approach of cardiovascular (CV) risk assessment and clinical management of children with FH incorporating current risk assessment profile (LDL-C levels, traditional CV risk factors and familial history) with genetic and non-invasive vascular phenotyping. Based on the existing data on vascular phenotype status, this panel recommends that all children with FH and cIMT ≥0.5 mm should receive lipid lowering therapy irrespective of the presence of CV risk factors, family history and/or LDL-C levels Those children with FH and cIMT ≥0.4 mm should be carefully monitored to initiate lipid lowering management in the most suitable time. Likewise, all genetically confirmed children with FH and LDL-C levels ≥4.1 mmol/L (160 mg/dL), should be treated with lifestyle changes and LLT irrespective of the cIMT, presence of additional RF or family history of CHD.
- Cardiovascular risk
- Familial hypercholesterolaemia
- Vascular phenotype