RIPK3 and its substrate MLKL are essential for necroptosis, a lytic cell death proposed to cause inflammation via the release of intracellular molecules. Whether and how RIPK3 might drive inflammation in a manner independent of MLKL and cell lysis remains unclear. Here we show that following LPS treatment, or LPS-induced necroptosis, the TLR adaptor protein TRIF and inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs: X-linked IAP, cellular IAP1 and IAP2) regulate RIPK3 and MLKL ubiquitylation. Hence, when IAPs are absent, LPS triggers RIPK3 to activate caspase-8, promoting apoptosis and NLRP3-caspase-1 activation, independent of RIPK3 kinase activity and MLKL. In contrast, in the absence of both IAPs and caspase-8, RIPK3 kinase activity and MLKL are essential for TLR-induced NLRP3 activation. Consistent with in vitro experiments, interleukin-1 (IL-1)-dependent autoantibody-mediated arthritis is exacerbated in mice lacking IAPs, and is reduced by deletion of RIPK3, but not MLKL. Therefore RIPK3 can promote NLRP3 inflammasome and IL-1 β inflammatory responses independent of MLKL and necroptotic cell death.
|National Health and Medical Research
|Victorian State Government OIS
|National Science Foundation
|John T. Reid Charitable Trusts
|National Health and Medical Research Council
|1057905, 1052598, 541901, 1025594, 1051210
|Schweizerischer Nationalfonds zur Förderung der Wissenschaftlichen Forschung