Rigorous time/space trade-offs for inverting functions

Amos Fiat*, Moni Naor

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

42 Scopus citations


We provide rigorous time/space trade-offs for inverting any function. Given a function f, we give a time/space trade-off of TS2 = N3q(f), where q(f) is the probability that two random elements (taken with replacement) are mapped to the same image under f. We also give a more general trade-off, TS3 = N3, that can invert any function at any point.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)790-803
Number of pages14
JournalSIAM Journal on Computing
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2000


  • Cryptanalysis
  • Cryptography
  • Hashing data encryption standard
  • One-way functions
  • Random graphs
  • Randomized algorithms


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