BACKGROUND: Rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM) is a devastating infection of immunocompromised hosts. We present our experience with 19 ROCM cases and attempt to define preferred diagnostic and treatment protocols. METHODS: All had tissue biopsies obtained studied by direct smear, histologic studies, and cultures. Imaging was obtained in 14 cases. RESULTS: Sixteen patients presented between August and November. Six had mixed fungal infections. Seven patients had end-stage underlying disease or infection and did not undergo surgery and 4 had an indolent form of disease. Patients were treated by surgery and by amphotericin B. The overall survival was 47%. CONCLUSIONS: ROCM may have seasonal incidence peaking in the fall and early winter. The therapeutic approach should be unchanged in cases of mixed fungal infections. Amphotericin B with aggressive debridement remains the mainstay of treatment. Early recognition and treatment are essential. A presentation and survival-dependent classification of ROCM are offered.