1 We present a 40-year-old healthy man who developed a typical clinical picture of rhabdomyolysis following the administration of paraphenylenediamine by a witchdoctor as a pain killer. 2 Two groups of 15 mice were given paraphenylenediamine 70 mg/kg and 35 mg/kg respectively. Biochemical and histological findings of rhabdomyolysis developed in both groups, without kidney damage. 3 Paraphenylenediamine may cause rhabdomyolysis resulting in acute renal failure in humans. In mice, however, it produces rhabdomyolysis, but the kidneys are not affected.