Revisiting pachyonychia congenita: a case-cohort study of 815 patients

L. Samuelov, F. J.D. Smith, C. D. Hansen, E. Sprecher

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Pachyonychia congenita (PC) is a group of autosomal dominant disorders caused by mutations in one of five keratin genes (KRT6A, KRT6B, KRT6C, KRT16, KRT17). The establishment of an international registry containing clinical and molecular data led to the development of a disease classification based on the mutant gene and associated features. Objectives: To harness the same resource to clarify the prevalence of PC-associated clinical features, delineate phenotype–genotype correlations and identify prognostic features for disease severity. Methods: In total, 815 individuals with confirmed keratin mutations registered in the International Pachyonychia Congenita Research Registry were surveyed for clinical findings associated with PC. Data were analysed using various statistical methods, including the Student's t-test, χ2-test and anova tests for differences in means/proportions. Spearman correlation and logistic regression were used for phenotype–genotype correlations. Results: KRT6A mutations were associated with oral leucokeratosis, hoarseness, youngest age or highest number of fingernails/toenails involved, and use of walking aids. KRT17 mutations were most commonly associated with cysts and natal teeth. Using logistic regression, we found that oral leucokeratosis was correlated with earlier toenail involvement, walking aids, nursing difficulties and hoarseness. Cysts were correlated with oral leucokeratosis, natal teeth and ear wax. Natal teeth predicted earlier toenail involvement, walking difficulties and cyst formation. Hoarseness was correlated with an increased number of involved fingernails. Conclusions: Here, we establish phenotype–genotype correlations in the largest cohort of patients with PC described to date and reveal novel and clinically useful predictors of disease course and manifestations. What's already known about this topic?. Pachyonychia congenita (PC) is a group of autosomal dominant disorders caused by mutations in one of five keratin genes (KRT6A, KRT6B, KRT6C, KRT16, KRT17). The main clinical features are nail dystrophy, palmoplantar keratoderma, oral leucokeratosis and cysts. The establishment of an international registry containing the clinical and molecular data of patients with PC led to the development of a disease classification based on the mutant gene and associated features. What does this study add?. Data were collected via an international registry to clarify the prevalence of PC-associated clinical features, delineate phenotype–genotype correlations and identify prognostic features for disease severity. This is the largest cohort of patients with PC described to date. The earliest clinical manifestations of PC are nail dystrophy and palmoplantar keratoderma. Diagnosis can be suspected and confirmed in preschool years. Painful plantar keratoderma has the most profound and debilitating effect on quality of life and daily function. Linked Editorial: Steele and O’Toole. Br J Dermatol 2020; 182:521–522. Linked Comment: Mordaunt. Br J Dermatol 2020; 182:537.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)738-746
Number of pages9
JournalBritish Journal of Dermatology
Volume182
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Mar 2020

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