Retinoblastoma Outcomes in the Americas: A Prospective Analysis of 491 Children With Retinoblastoma From 23 American Countries

Global Retinoblastoma Study Group

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: Globally, disparities exist in retinoblastoma treatment outcomes between high- and low-income countries, but independent analysis of American countries is lacking. We report outcomes of American retinoblastoma patients and explore factors associated with survival and globe salvage. Design: Subanalysis of prospective cohort study data. Methods: Multicenter analysis at 57 American treatment centers in 23 countries of varying economic levels (low income [LIC], lower-middle income [LMIC], upper-middle income [UMIC], and high income [HIC]) of 491 treatment-naïve retinoblastoma patients diagnosed in 2017 and followed through 2020. Survival and globe salvage rates analyzed with Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazard models. Results: Of patients, 8 (1.6%), 58 (11.8%), 235 (47.9%), and 190 (38.7%) were from LIC, LMIC, UMIC, and HIC groups, respectively. Three-year survival rates in LICs were 60.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 12.6-88.2) compared with 99.2% (95% CI 94.6%-99.9%) in HICs. Death was less likely in patients >4 years of age (vs ≤4 years, HR = 0.45 [95% CI 0.27-0.78], P = .048). Patients with more advanced tumors (eg, cT3 vs cT1, HR = 4.65 × 109 [95% CI 1.25 × 109-1.72 × 1010], P < .001) and females (vs males, HR = 1.98 [95% CI 1.27-3.10], P = .04) were more likely to die. Three-year globe salvage rates were 13.3% (95% CI 5.1%-25.6%) in LMICs and 46.2% (95% CI 38.8%-53.3%) in HICs. At 3 years, 70.1% of cT1 eyes (95% CI 54.5%-81.2%) vs 8.9% of cT3 eyes (95% CI 5.5%-13.3%) were salvaged. Advanced tumor stage was associated with higher enucleation risk (eg, cT3 vs cT1, subhazard ratio = 4.98 [95% CI 2.36-10.5], P < .001). Conclusions: Disparities exist in survival and globe salvage in American countries based on economic level and tumor stage demonstrating a need for childhood cancer programs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)91-101
Number of pages11
JournalAmerican Journal of Ophthalmology
StatePublished - Apr 2024


FundersFunder number
Celia Moh Foundation
Danhakl Family Foundation
Wright Foundation
National Institutes of HealthR01CA282759
National Cancer InstituteK08CA232344
Knights Templar Eye Foundation
Alex's Lemonade Stand Foundation for Childhood Cancer
Research to Prevent Blindness
Queen Elizabeth Diamond Jubilee Trust


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