Retinal Diseases: The Next Frontier in Pharmacodelivery

Assaf Ben-Arzi, Rita Ehrlich, Ron Neumann

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


The future continuous growth of the global older population augments the burden of retinal diseases worldwide. Retinal characteristics isolating and protecting the sensitive neuro-retina from the rest of the ocular tissues challenge drug delivery and promote research and development toward new horizons. In this review, we wish to describe the unmet medical needs, discuss the novel modes of delivery, and disclose to the reader a spectrum of older-to-novel drug delivery technologies, innovations, and the frontier of pharmacodelivery to the retina. Treating the main retinal diseases in the everlasting war against blindness and its associated morbidity has been growing steadily over the last two decades. Implants, new angiogenesis inhibitor agents, micro-and nano-carriers, and the anchored port delivery system are becoming new tools in this war. The revolution and evolution of new delivery methods might be just a few steps ahead, yet its assimilation in our daily clinical work may take time, due to medical, economical, and regulatory elements that need to be met in order to allow successful development and market utilization of new technologies. Therefore, further work is warranted, as detailed in this Pharmaceutics Special Issue.

Original languageEnglish
Article number904
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2022


  • Port delivery systems
  • age-related macular degeneration (AMD)
  • anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)
  • designed ankyrin repeat protein (DARP)
  • diabetic retinopathy
  • global aging
  • hydrogel
  • implant
  • liposome
  • micro-and nano-carriers
  • micro-and nanoparticles
  • pharmacodelivery and drug delivery


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