The feasibility of using cartilaginous implants containing bone marrow derived chondrocytes in biological resurfacing procedures for correcting defects in articular cartilage was examined in goats. The experimental protocol included bone marrow aspiration, mesenchymal cell culturing, cell proliferation, favorable conditions inducing chondrogenic differentiation, and implantation of autogeneic and allogeneic cells. Autogeneic implant transplantations proved to be the best source for regeneration and repair of defective articular surfaces with use of densitometric computed image analysis of histochemical and immunohistochemical parameters on tissue sections. Allogeneic chondrocyte enriched cultures derived from bone marrow evoke a typical immune response in the host, expressed by the formation of fibrosis and progressive joint arthrosis. In the current study, a biological resurfacing procedure is described in detail for large mammals of similar weight and size as humans. Autogeneic mesenchymal cells derived from a bone marrow aspiration are the best cell source and when embedded in hyaluronic acid based adhesive glue make an excellent cartilaginous implant. The reparative regenerated cartilaginous tissue outcome within the defects appear different than neighboring normal articular cartilage shortly after surgery. Whether in the long term the cartilaginous remodeling process will shape the cartilage such that it more closely resembles the original articular cartilage is not known.