Restoration of epigenetic impairment in the skeletal muscle and chronic inflammation resolution as a therapeutic approach in sarcopenia

Gregory Livshits*, Alexander Kalinkovich

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Sarcopenia is an age-associated loss of skeletal muscle mass, strength, and function, accompanied by severe adverse health outcomes, such as falls and fractures, functional decline, high health costs, and mortality. Hence, its prevention and treatment have become increasingly urgent. However, despite the wide prevalence and extensive research on sarcopenia, no FDA-approved disease-modifying drugs exist. This is probably due to a poor understanding of the mechanisms underlying its pathophysiology. Recent evidence demonstrate that sarcopenia development is characterized by two key elements: (i) epigenetic dysregulation of multiple molecular pathways associated with sarcopenia pathogenesis, such as protein remodeling, insulin resistance, mitochondria impairments, and (ii) the creation of a systemic, chronic, low-grade inflammation (SCLGI). In this review, we focus on the epigenetic regulators that have been implicated in skeletal muscle deterioration, their individual roles, and possible crosstalk. We also discuss epidrugs, which are the pharmaceuticals with the potential to restore the epigenetic mechanisms deregulated in sarcopenia. In addition, we discuss the mechanisms underlying failed SCLGI resolution in sarcopenia and the potential application of pro-resolving molecules, comprising specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) and their stable mimetics and receptor agonists. These compounds, as well as epidrugs, reveal beneficial effects in preclinical studies related to sarcopenia. Based on these encouraging observations, we propose the combination of epidrugs with SCLI-resolving agents as a new therapeutic approach for sarcopenia that can effectively attenuate of its manifestations.

Original languageEnglish
Article number102267
JournalAgeing Research Reviews
Volume96
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2024

Funding

FundersFunder number
Israel Science Foundation2054/19
Israel Science Foundation
Ariel University Research & Development Department#RA2000000457

    Keywords

    • Chronic inflammation
    • Epidrugs
    • Sarcopenia

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