This paper reviews the literature on the long-term effects of the Holocaust on survivors, their offspring, and their grandchildren. Two major conclusions are drawn. First, the functioning of these three generations is best characterized by general resilience along with specific vulnerabilities. Thus, although most survivors and their descendents lead normal lives, specific vulnerabilities may appear under adverse situations and are interwoven in the family dynamics. Second, the aging process not only presents increasing challenges to the survivors themselves but also reshapes the intergenerational relations within their families.