Relation of Low Serum Magnesium to Mortality and Cardiac Allograft Vasculopathy Following Heart Transplantation

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Hypomagnesemia is commonly observed in heart transplant (HT) recipients receiving calcineurin inhibitors. Since low serum magnesium (s-Mg) has been implicated in the progression of atherosclerosis, potentially leading to worsening coronary heart disease, arrhythmias and sudden death, we investigated the association between s-Mg and HT outcomes. Between 2002 and 2017, 150 HT patients assessed for s-Mg were divided into high (≥1.7 mg/dL) and low s-Mg groups according to the median value of all s-Mg levels recorded during the first 3 months post-HT. Endpoints included survival, cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV), any-treated rejection (ATR) and NF-MACE. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that at 15 years after HT, both survival (76 vs 33%, log-rank p = 0.007) and freedom from CAV (75 vs 48%, log-rank p = 0.01) were higher in the high versus low s-Mg group. There were no significant differences in freedom from NF-MACE or ATR. Multivariate analyses consistently demonstrated that low s-Mg was independently associated with a significant 2.6-fold increased risk of mortality and 4-fold increased risk of CAV (95%CI 1.06 to 6.4, p = 0.04; 95%CI 1.12 to 14.42, p = 0.01, respectively). In conclusion, low s-Mg is independently associated with increased mortality and CAV in HT patients. Larger multi-center prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings and to examine the effect of Mg supplementation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1517-1523
Number of pages7
JournalAmerican Journal of Cardiology
Issue number10
StatePublished - 15 May 2020


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