The regulatory effect of cytokinin on the formation of secondary xylem fibers was studied in the hypocotyl of young Helianthus annuus L. plants. Positive correlation was found between the kinetin supplied (0.25-0.5 micrograms/gram) to the growth medium and the rate of fiber formation within and between the vascular bundles. Reducing the root originated cytokinin supply, either by root removal or by lowering the transpiration rate, diminished the number of newly formed secondary xylem fibers. This decrease was considerably reversed in the presence of 0.5 microgram/ gram kinetin. Early pulse exposure of kinetin had a temporary promoting effect on fiber differentiation at low concentrations and a permanent inhibitory effect at high concentration.