The activity of the αβ form of Rous sarcoma virus RNA-dependent DNA polymerase was stimulated upon treatment with the protein kinase purified from the same virus. This enhancement was observed for both DNA-dependent and RNA-dependent DNA polymerase activities, whereas the RNase H activity associated with the polymerase was not affected. On the other hand, the protein kinase did not induce detectable changes in the activities of the α-polymerase isoenzyme. Treatment with Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase resulted in a reduction of the polymerase activities of the αβ isoenzyme with no effects on RNase H as well as on the α form of the DNA polymerase. Preincubations of the αβ- and α-oncornaviral polymerase isoenzymes with two other protein kinases-from avian myeloblastosis virus and from beef heart (catalytic subunit)-had no substantial effects on DNA polymerase and RNase H activities of both polymerase isoenzymes. Both α and β subunits of the polymerase isoenzymes were phosphorylated in vitro by all three protein kinases employed, although only the β subunit was shown previously to be phosphorylated in vivo.