Regional Slow Waves and Spindles in Human Sleep

Yuval Nir, Richard J. Staba, Thomas Andrillon, Vladyslav V. Vyazovskiy, Chiara Cirelli, Itzhak Fried, Giulio Tononi*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The most prominent EEG events in sleep are slow waves, reflecting a slow (<1 Hz) oscillation between up and down states in cortical neurons. It is unknown whether slow oscillations are synchronous across the majority or the minority of brain regions-are they a global or local phenomenon? To examine this, we recorded simultaneously scalp EEG, intracerebral EEG, and unit firing in multiple brain regions of neurosurgical patients. We find that most sleep slow waves and the underlying active and inactive neuronal states occur locally. Thus, especially in late sleep, some regions can be active while others are silent. We also find that slow waves can propagate, usually from medial prefrontal cortex to the medial temporal lobe and hippocampus. Sleep spindles, the other hallmark of NREM sleep EEG, are likewise predominantly local. Thus, intracerebral communication during sleep is constrained because slow and spindle oscillations often occur out-of-phase in different brain regions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)153-169
Number of pages17
Issue number1
StatePublished - 14 Apr 2011


FundersFunder number
Brainpower for Israel Fund
National Institute of Health
National Institutes of HealthP20 MH077967, R01 NS055185
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and StrokeR01NS033221
European Molecular Biology Organization


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