Background: In childhood cancer survivors (CCS) at risk for heart failure, echocardiographic surveillance recommendations are currently based on anthracyclines and chest-directed radiotherapy dose. Whether the ejection fraction (EF) measured at an initial surveillance echocardiogram can refine these recommendations is unknown. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the added predictive value of EF at >5 years after cancer diagnosis to anthracyclines and chest-directed radiotherapy dose in CCS, for the development of left ventricular dysfunction with an ejection fraction <40% (LVD40). Methods: Echocardiographic surveillance was performed in 299 CCS from the Emma Children's Hospital in the Netherlands. Cox regression models were built including cardiotoxic cancer treatment exposures with and without EF to estimate the probability of LVD40 at 10-year follow-up. Calibration, discrimination, and reclassification were assessed. Results were externally validated in 218 CCS. Results: Cumulative incidences of LVD40 at 10-year follow-up were 3.7% and 3.6% in the derivation and validation cohort, respectively. The addition of EF resulted in an integrated area under the curve increase from 0.74 to 0.87 in the derivation cohort and from 0.72 to 0.86 in the validation cohort (likelihood ratio p < 0.001). Reclassification of CCS without LVD40 improved significantly (noncase continuous net reclassification improvement 0.50; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.40 to 0.60). A predicted LVD40 probability ≤3%, representing 75% of the CCS, had a negative predictive value of 99% (95% CI: 98% to 100%) for LVD40 within 10 years. However, patients with midrange EF (40% to 49%) at initial screening had an incidence of LVD40 of 11% and a 7.81-fold (95% CI: 2.07- to 29.50-fold) increased risk of LV40 at follow-up. Conclusions: In CCS, an initial surveillance EF, in addition to anthracyclines and chest-directed radiotherapy dose, improves the 10-year prediction for LVD40. Through this strategy, both the identification of low-risk survivors in whom the surveillance frequency may be reduced and a group of survivors at increased risk of LVD40 could be identified.
- childhood cancer survivors
- risk prediction model