Referent body weight values in over ground walking, over ground jogging, treadmill jogging, and elliptical exercise

Yonatan Kaplan, Yannai Barak, Ezequiel Palmonovich, Meir Nyska, Erik Witvrouw

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: I. To evaluate average percentage body weight (APBW) values and weight-bearing distribution percentages (WBDP) between four common sports activities in a referent adult population. II. To suggest clinical implications. Design: Original research study. Setting: Lerner Sports Center, Hebrew University, Mount Scopus, Jerusalem, Israel. Participants: Seventy-five asymptomatic volunteers, mean age = 33.5 (19-72) years SD = 15.1, mean weight (kg) = 70.7 (43-113) SD = 14.1. Interventions: Four tests were conducted: 1. Overground walking (OGW) over a 20. m distance, 2. Overground jogging (OGJ) over a 20. m distance, 3. Treadmill jogging (TJ) at a constant speed of 8.5. km/h for a 15-second interval and 4. Elliptical exercise (EE) for a 20 second period at a resistance and incline level of 10, and a steady pace within the range of 70-95 steps/min. Main outcome measure: The Smartstep™ weight-bearing gait analysis system. Results: The APBW value on the entire foot in OGW was 112% (SD = 15.57), in OGJ, 201% (SD = 31.24, in TJ, 175% (SD = 25.48) and in EE, 73% (SD = 13.8). Regarding WBDP, the swing phase in OGJ and TJ was significantly longer than the stance phase (p< 0.05). OGW resulted in significantly less swing phase compared to OGJ and TJ (p< 0.05). Conclusions: EE significantly reduces weight-bearing as compared to other common functional and sporting activities. These findings may assist the rehabilitation team when considering returning individuals back to early activity following certain bony or soft tissue pathologies or lower-limb surgical procedures. This information is also useful from a repetitive loading standpoint (to prevent overuse injury) or for exercise recommendations for those at greater risk for exacerbating chronic joint pathology.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)558-562
Number of pages5
JournalGait and Posture
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Lower limb injuries
  • Referent values
  • Weight-bearing activities


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