Background: Adipose-derived stem cell (ASC) expansion under atmospheric oxygen levels (21%) was previously shown to cause increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and genetic instability compared to cells cultured under physiological oxygen levels (2-8%). However, since culture under physiological oxygen levels is costly and complicated, a simpler method to reduce ROS accumulation is desirable. The current study aimed to determine whether lower culture temperature can reduce ROS production in ASCs without impairing their culture expansion. Methods: Proliferation, differentiation, ROS accumulation, and gene expression were compared between ASC cultures at 35 °C and 37 °C. ASCs isolated either from rat fat depots or from human lipoaspirates were examined in the study. Results: Rat visceral ASCs (vASCs) cultured at 35 °C demonstrated reduced ROS production and apoptosis and enhanced expansion and adipogenic differentiation compared to vASCs cultured at 37 °C. Similarly, the culture of human ASCs (hASCs) at 35 °C led to reduced ROS accumulation and apoptosis, with no effect on the proliferation rate, compared to hASCs cultured at 37 °C. Comparison of gene expression profiles of 35 °C versus 37 °C vASCs uncovered the development of a pro-inflammatory phenotype in 37 °C vASCs in correlation with culture temperature and ROS overproduction. This correlation was reaffirmed in both hASCs and subcutaneous rat ASCs. Conclusions: This is the first evidence of the effect of culture temperature on ASC growth and differentiation properties. Reduced temperatures may result in superior ASC cultures with enhanced expansion capacities in vitro and effectiveness in vivo.