Reduced adipose tissue in growth-restricted fetuses using quantitative analysis of magnetic resonance images

Aviad Rabinowich*, Netanell Avisdris, Ayala Zilberman, Daphna Link-Sourani, Sapir Lazar, Jacky Herzlich, Bella Specktor-Fadida, Leo Joskowicz, Gustavo Malinger, Liat Ben-Sira, Liran Hiersch, Dafna Ben Bashat

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Objectives: Fat–water MRI can be used to quantify tissues’ lipid content. We aimed to quantify fetal third trimester normal whole-body subcutaneous lipid deposition and explore differences between appropriate for gestational age (AGA), fetal growth restriction (FGR), and small for gestational age fetuses (SGAs). Methods: We prospectively recruited women with FGR and SGA-complicated pregnancies and retrospectively recruited the AGA cohort (sonographic estimated fetal weight [EFW] ≥ 10th centile). FGR was defined using the accepted Delphi criteria, and fetuses with an EFW < 10th centile that did not meet the Delphi criteria were defined as SGA. Fat–water and anatomical images were acquired in 3 T MRI scanners. The entire fetal subcutaneous fat was semi-automatically segmented. Three adiposity parameters were calculated: fat signal fraction (FSF) and two novel parameters, i.e., fat-to-body volume ratio (FBVR) and estimated total lipid content (ETLC = FSF*FBVR). Normal lipid deposition with gestation and differences between groups were assessed. Results: Thirty-seven AGA, 18 FGR, and 9 SGA pregnancies were included. All three adiposity parameters increased between 30 and 39 weeks (p < 0.001). All three adiposity parameters were significantly lower in FGR compared with AGA (p ≤ 0.001). Only ETLC and FSF were significantly lower in SGA compared with AGA using regression analysis (p = 0.018–0.036, respectively). Compared with SGA, FGR had a significantly lower FBVR (p = 0.011) with no significant differences in FSF and ETLC (p ≥ 0.053). Conclusions: Whole-body subcutaneous lipid accretion increased throughout the third trimester. Reduced lipid deposition is predominant in FGR and may be used to differentiate FGR from SGA, assess FGR severity, and study other malnourishment pathologies. Clinical relevance statement: Fetuses with growth restriction have reduced lipid deposition than appropriately developing fetuses measured using MRI. Reduced fat accretion is linked with worse outcomes and may be used for growth restriction risk stratification. Key Points: • Fat–water MRI can be used to assess the fetal nutritional status quantitatively. • Lipid deposition increased throughout the third trimester in AGA fetuses. • FGR and SGA have reduced lipid deposition compared with AGA fetuses, more predominant in FGR.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)9194-9202
Number of pages9
JournalEuropean Radiology
Volume33
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2023

Funding

FundersFunder number
Leo Mintz
Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University
Israel Innovation Authority

    Keywords

    • Adipose tissue
    • Fetal growth retardation
    • Magnetic resonance imaging
    • Prenatal diagnosis

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