Recurrent pregnancy loss and inappropriate local immune response to sex hormones

Alek M. Itsekson, Daniel S. Seidman, Matityahu Zolti, Anneta Lazarov, Howard J.A. Carp

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Problem: The cause of recurrent miscarriage is often unknown. Recurrent miscarriage may be associated with inappropriate responses to progesterone and estrogen. We examined whether the condition may be diagnosed by skin testing. Method of study: In a longitudinal prospective study, the weal and flare reaction after intradermal injection of estradiol and progesterone was compared in 29 women with recurrent miscarriage to the response in 10 healthy women. Reactions were evaluated after 20 min, 24, and 48 hr and 5 days later. Results: Estrogen hypersensitivity was found in 23 patients, and progesterone hypersensitivity in 20 patients. No patient in the control group demonstrated sex hormone hypersensitivity. Conclusion: Recurrent pregnancy loss may be associated with inappropriate local immune responses to sex hormones. Further research is necessary into the mechanisms of hypersensitivity to estrogen and progesterone and their interactions with other systems.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)160-165
Number of pages6
JournalAmerican Journal of Reproductive Immunology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • Estrogen
  • Progesterone
  • Recurrent miscarriage
  • Skin testing
  • Spontaneous abortion


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