Recipient reactions to aid

Jeffrey D. Fisher*, Arie Nadler, Sheryle Whitcher-Alagna

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Presents a comprehensive review of research and theory on reactions to help, organized in terms of 4 conceptual orientations (equity, attribution, reactance, and threat to self-esteem). For each orientation, the basic assumptions and predictions are discussed, supportive and nonsupportive data are reviewed, and an overall appraisal is offered. Threat to self-esteem is proposed as an organizing construct for research on reactions to help, and a model based on this construct is presented. It is argued that a formalized threat-to-self-esteem model is more comprehensive and parsimonious for predicting reactions to help than are equity, attribution, or reactance models. (111 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)27-54
Number of pages28
JournalPsychological Bulletin
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1982


  • equity & attribution & reactance & threat to self esteem orientations to research & theory on reactions to help, literature review


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