Recent advances and current state of immunotherapy in systemic lupus erythematosus

Mo Yin Mok, Yehuda Shoenfeld

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Introduction: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune syndrome that poses significant challenges in diagnosis and treatment. Dysregulated innate and adaptive immune systems are involved in its pathogenesis. A plethora of novel immunotherapies have been developed for the treatment of SLE but many have failed early clinical trials. Areas covered: This review summarizes immunotherapies under recent development with relevance to the targeted cellular or soluble factors involved in the pathogenesis of SLE. Expert opinion: SLE is a complicated disease with much heterogeneity. Novel immunotherapies with different mechanisms of action that are currently under development include biologic agents targeting co-stimulatory molecules, cytokines or their receptors and signaling molecules and B cells, cell-based therapy and peptide therapy. Together with good scientific rationale and advanced biological engineering techniques, optimization of clinical trial design, patient selection and disease outcome measures are essential to demonstrate the clinical efficacy and safety of these agents.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)927-939
Number of pages13
JournalExpert Opinion on Biological Therapy
Issue number7
StatePublished - 2 Jul 2016


  • Clinical trial
  • immunotherapy
  • lupus nephritis
  • systemic lupus erythematosus


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