Reactions of Arab-Palestinians in Israel Toward an In-group Member Mixing Hebrew or English With Arabic

Yechiel Klar*, Abed Al Rahman Mar’i, Slieman Halabi, Ameer Basheer, Bashir Basheer

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Code-mixing with a dominant language can appeal to members of linguistic minorities because it signals bilingual proficiency, modernity, and social mobility. However, it can also pose a threat to the minority’s group vitality and distinctiveness. In Study 1 (N = 208), Palestinian citizens of Israel (a linguistic and national minority) listened to a recorded message by a fellow group member, either in pure Arabic or in Arabic mixed with Hebrew or English. Code-mixing elicited negative evaluations. In Study 2 (N = 276), Arabic mixed with Hebrew was crossed with messages on the relations with the Jewish–Israeli majority. Speakers who advocated full independence from the majority or an impartial view, but expressed linguistic dependency on Hebrew through code-mixing lost credit. Identification with the national group affected the effects in both studies. The implications of code-mixing for identity-related processes and its potential use as a social barometer for intergroup relations are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)516-533
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of Language and Social Psychology
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1 Sep 2020


  • Arabic
  • English
  • Hebrew
  • Palestinian citizens of Israel
  • code-mixing
  • linguistic and social minority


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