Objective: To assess long-term efficacy and safety of canakinumab and the response to vaccination in children ages ≤5 years with cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS). Methods: CAPS patients (ages ≤5 years) received 2 mg/kg canakinumab subcutaneously every 8 weeks; patients with neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease (NOMID) received a starting dose of 4 mg/kg in this open-label trial. Efficacy was evaluated using physician global assessment of disease activity and serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and amyloid A (SAA). Adverse events (AEs) were recorded. Vaccination response was evaluated using postvaccination antibody titers at 4 and 8 weeks after immunization. Results: Of the 17 patients enrolled, 12 (71%) had Muckle-Wells syndrome, 4 (24%) had NOMID, and 1 (6%) had familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome. All 17 patients had a complete response to canakinumab. Disease activity improved according to the physician global assessment, and for 65% of the patients autoinflammatory disease was characterized as “absent” at the end of the study. Median CRP levels decreased over time. No such change was evident in SAA levels. During the extension study, postvaccination antibody titers increased above protective levels in 16 (94%) of 17 assessable vaccinations. Ten of the patients (59%) had AEs suspected to be related to canakinumab; 8 (47%) experienced at least 1 serious AE (SAE). None of the AEs or SAEs required interruption of canakinumab therapy. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that canakinumab effectively maintains efficacy through 152 weeks and appears to have no effect on the ability to produce antibodies against standard childhood non-live vaccines. The safety profile of canakinumab was consistent with previous studies, supporting long-term use of canakinumab for CAPS in children ≤5 years of age.