Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), proteolytic enzymes produced by monocytes, may contribute to atherosclerotic arterial wall remodeling and to plaque rupture. Because estrogen influences the synthesis of MMPs, we examined the effect of raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, on monocyte MMP production. Human primary blood monocytes treated with raloxifene (10 μmol/L) in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or tumor necrosis factor-α and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor induced a 2- to 3-fold increase in MMP-1 production by monocytes. The enhancement of MMP-1 production by raloxifene in LPS-activated monocytes occurred through a cyclooxygenase-2- and prostaglandin E2-independent mechanism. Additionally, compared with monocytes acquired during the placebo phase, peripheral blood monocytes from 5 of 6 healthy postmenopausal women treated with raloxifene (60 mg daily for 1 month) in a clinical trial produced significantly higher levels of MMP-1 when the monocytes were activated with LPS. Furthermore, serum obtained during the raloxifene phase from 4 of these subjects, when added to control monocytes, significantly enhanced LPS-induced MMP-1 production compared with that from serum obtained during the placebo phase. In summary, raloxifene increases the production of MMP-1 in activated monocytes; this effect may be favorable in atherosclerotic arterial wall remodeling but unfavorable for plaque stability.
|Number of pages||4|
|Journal||Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology|
|State||Published - 2001|
- Matrix metalloproteinases