One hundred and ten patients with hypospadias underwent excretory urography and micturating cysto-urethrography before surgical correction. Urographic studies revealed abnormalities in 50 patients (45%), mainly anomalies of ascent and rotation of the kidneys. None of these patients required corrective surgery. Voiding cysto-urethrography disclosed disease of the urinary tract in 65 of 110 patients (59%). Meatal stenosis was found in 38 patients and a rudimentary vagina or a prostatic utricle was revealed in 11 others. Vesico-ureteral reflux was present in 14 patients, seven of whom had meatal stenosis as well. Cystitis was found in eight and a stricture of the membraneous urethra in one patient. The voiding cysto-urethrogram is able to demonstrate functionally significant meatal stenosis, genital abnormalities and vesico-ureteral reflux. It can also serve as a useful baseline for comparison with postoperative studies. We therefore consider that it should be included in the preoperative work-up of every patient with hypospadias. Excretory urography, however, is perhaps indicated only in those with urinary tract infection, or in patients otherwise symptomatic.