In an article published in 1922, Pedro Yrigoyén, a refined spokesman of the southern Peruvian highland landlords, tried to draw the attention of Lima's Creole public opinion to the widespread agrarian agitation that was challenging their control of the region. Yrigoyen, an intellectual with historical interests, pointed to the ignorance of the Andean Indians toward their own supposed past under Inca rule.2 However, the main concern expressed by his article was much more urgent. The southern landlords were pointing to what they conceived as a real menace to their interests and lands, and even to their own survival as non-Indians in the Andean highlands. Basically, through this appeal to Lima public opinion, the southern landlords were justifying their own violent repressive measures against neighboring Indian communities and putting pressure on the central government to take their side in the agrarian conflicts. Specifically, they were urging Augusto Legufa's regime to stop its tolerant and even benevolent policy toward the radical ‘Tahuantinsuyo-Pro-Indigenous Rights Committee’. The Committee activists were coordinating and giving support to peasant struggles, distributing information about indigenous legal rights, encouraging the Andean communities to demand the retribution of lands taken during the last decades by expansionist and coercive landlords and lobbying for them.