Quantum Theory of Disturbance and Delay of GPS Signals in D and E Atmospheric Layers: An Introduction

Gennady Golubkov, Michael Manzhelii, Lev Eppelbaum

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


GPS signals play a very important role in the modern industry, science, tourism, military and domestic operations. However, GPS signals are not free from some mistakes caused by disturbances appearing in D and E layers of the atmosphere. A quantum approach is proposed to the theory of propagation of a satellite GPS signal through the D and E layers of the atmosphere, which reduces to the problem of scattering of photons moving in the electromagnetic field of a signal in Rydberg complexes formed in a two-temperature non-equilibrium plasma. The processes of creation of additional photons as a result of stimulated emission and resonance scattering of photons are considered. It is shown that the first process leads to a direct increase in the power of the received signal, and the second to a shift in the signal carrier frequency and the time delay of its propagation. This occurs because of the scattering of the Rydberg electron by the ion core and the neutral medium molecule in the intermediate autoionization states of the composite system populated by the strong non-adiabatic coupling of electron and nuclear motions.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)13-22
Number of pages10
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2018


  • GPS
  • D and E atmospheric layers
  • Rydberg complexes
  • Non-equilibrium plasma


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