Quantitative CT Assessment of Gynecomastia in the General Population and in Dialysis, Cirrhotic, and Obese Patients

Eyal Klang*, Nayroz Kanana, Alon Grossman, Steve Raskin, Jana Pikovsky, Miri Sklair, Lior Heller, Shelly Soffer, Edith M. Marom, Eli Konen, Marianne Michal Amitai

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Rationale and Objectives: Gynecomastia is the benign enlargement of the male breast because of proliferation of the glandular component. To date, there is no radiological definition of gynecomastia and no quantitative evaluation of breast glandular tissues in the general male population. The aims of this study were to supply radiological-based measurements of breast glandular tissue in the general male population, to quantitatively assess the prevalence of gynecomastia according to age by decades, and to evaluate associations between gynecomastia and obesity, cirrhosis, and dialysis. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study included 506 men who presented to the emergency department following trauma and underwent chest-abdominal computed tomography. Also included were 45 patients undergoing hemodialysis and 50 patients with cirrhosis who underwent chest computed tomography. The incidence and size of gynecomastia for all the study population were calculated. Results: Breast tissue diameters of 22 mm, 28 mm, and 36 mm corresponded to 90th, 95th, and 97.5th cumulative percentiles of diameters in the general male population. Peaks of gynecomastia were shown in the ninth decade and in boys aged 13–14 years. Breast tissue diameter did not correlate with body mass index (r = −0.031). Patients undergoing hemodialysis and patients with cirrhosis had higher percentages (P <.0001) of breast tissue diameters above 22 mm, 28 mm, and 36 mm. Conclusions: Breast tissue diameter is a simple and reliable quantitative tool for the assessment of gynecomastia. This method provides the ability to determine the incidence of gynecomastia by age in the general population. Radiological gynecomastia should be defined as 22 mm, 28 mm, or 36 mm (90th, 95th, and 97.5th percentiles, respectively). Radiological gynecomastia is not associated with obesity, but is associated with cirrhosis and dialysis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)626-635
Number of pages10
JournalAcademic Radiology
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2018


  • Gynecomastia
  • cirrhosis
  • computed tomography
  • dialysis
  • obesity


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