Objectives: To quantitatively characterize clinically significant intra-prostatic cancer (IPC) by prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) expression and cell density on PSMA-11 positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance (PET/MR). Methods: Retrospective study approved by the institutional review board with informed written consent obtained. Patients with a solitary, biopsy-proven prostate cancer, Gleason score (GS) ≥7, presenting for initial evaluation by PET/computerised tomography (PET/CT), underwent early prostate PET/MR immediately after PSMA-11 tracer injection. PET/MR [MRI-based attenuation correction (MRAC)] and PET/CT [CT-based AC (CTAC)] maximal standardised uptake value (SUVmax) and minimal and mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADCmin, ADCmean; respectively) in normal prostatic tissue (NPT) were compared to IPC area. The relationship between SUVmax, ADCmin and ADCmean measurements was obtained. Results: Twenty-two patients (mean age 69.5±5.0 years) were included in the analysis. Forty-four prostate areas were evaluated (22 IPC and 22 NPT). Median MRAC SUVmax of NPT was significantly lower than median MRAC SUVmax of IPC (p < 0.0001). Median ADCmin and ADCmean of NPT was significantly higher than median ADCmin and ADCmean of IPC (p < 0.0001). A very good correlation was found between MRAC SUVmax with CTAC SUVmax (rho = –0.843, p < 0.0001). A good inverse relationship was found between MRAC SUVmax and CTAC SUVmax with ADCmin (rho = –0.717, p < 0.0001 and –0.740, p < 0.0001; respectively; Z = 0.22, p = 0.82, NS) and with MRAC SUVmax and ADCmean (rho = –0.737, p < 0.0001). Conclusions: PET/MR SUVmax, ADCmin and ADCmean are distinct biomarkers able to differentiate between IPC and NPT in naïve prostate cancer patients with GS ≥ 7. Key Points: • PSMA PET/MR metrics differentiate between normal and tumoural prostatic tissue. • A multi-parametric approach combining molecular and anatomical information might direct prostate biopsy. • PSMA PET/MR metrics are warranted for radiomics analysis.
- Apparent diffusion coefficient
- Magnetic resonance imaging
- Positron emission tomography
- Prostate cancer