TY - JOUR

T1 - Quantitative analysis of seismogenic shear-induced turbulence in lake sediments

AU - Wetzler, Nadav

AU - Marco, Shmuel

AU - Heifetz, Eyal

PY - 2010/4

Y1 - 2010/4

N2 - Spectacular deformations observed in lake sediments in an earthquake prone region (Lisan Formation, pre-Dead Sea lake) appear in phases of laminar, moderate folds, billow-like asymmetric folds, coherent vortices, and turbulent chaotic structures. Power spectral analysis of the deformation indicates that the geometry robustly obeys a power-law of -1.89, similar to the measured value of Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) turbulence in other environments. Numerical simulations are performed using properties of the layer materials based on measure-ments of the modern Dead Sea sediments, which are a reasonable analogue of Lake Lisan. The simulations show that for a given induced shear, the smaller the thickness of the layers, the greater is the turbulent deformation. This is due to the fact that although the effective viscosity increases (the Reynolds number decreases) the bulk Richardson number becomes smaller with decrease in the layer thickness. The latter represents the ratio between the gravitational potential energy of the stably strati ed sediments and the shear energy generated by the earthquake. Therefore, for thin layers, the shear energy density is larger and the KH instability mechanism becomes more ef cient. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) is related to the seismogenic shear established during the earthquake. Hence, a link is made between the observed thickness and geometry of a deformed layer with its causative earthquake's PGA.

AB - Spectacular deformations observed in lake sediments in an earthquake prone region (Lisan Formation, pre-Dead Sea lake) appear in phases of laminar, moderate folds, billow-like asymmetric folds, coherent vortices, and turbulent chaotic structures. Power spectral analysis of the deformation indicates that the geometry robustly obeys a power-law of -1.89, similar to the measured value of Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) turbulence in other environments. Numerical simulations are performed using properties of the layer materials based on measure-ments of the modern Dead Sea sediments, which are a reasonable analogue of Lake Lisan. The simulations show that for a given induced shear, the smaller the thickness of the layers, the greater is the turbulent deformation. This is due to the fact that although the effective viscosity increases (the Reynolds number decreases) the bulk Richardson number becomes smaller with decrease in the layer thickness. The latter represents the ratio between the gravitational potential energy of the stably strati ed sediments and the shear energy generated by the earthquake. Therefore, for thin layers, the shear energy density is larger and the KH instability mechanism becomes more ef cient. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) is related to the seismogenic shear established during the earthquake. Hence, a link is made between the observed thickness and geometry of a deformed layer with its causative earthquake's PGA.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=77954015263&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1130/G30685.1

DO - 10.1130/G30685.1

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AN - SCOPUS:77954015263

SN - 0091-7613

VL - 38

SP - 303

EP - 306

JO - Geology

JF - Geology

IS - 4

ER -