A 2Fe-ferredoxin from Halobacterium of the Dead Sea has been purified by chromatography on Sepharose and DEAE-cellulose, using decreasing concentration gradients of ammonium sulfate. Its amino acid composition reveals an extremely high excess of acidic amino acid residues: 44 glutamate and aspartate residues (of which 4 are in the amide form), compared to 6 lysines and arginines, as well as a high content of aromatic amino acids. The molecular weight of this ferredoxin was found to be 14,000 by amino acid composition, sedimentation equilibrium, and iron content. The millimolar coefficients at the maxima of the visible absorption spectrum are: 28.0 (277 nm), 12.2 (330 nm), 9.1 (420 nm), and 8.3 (465 nm). The optical properties-absorption and CD spectra in the visible region-of this ferredoxin are very similar to those of plant and algal ferredoxins, whereas its redox potential is much higher: -345 ± 5 mV (at pH 7.3, 0.5 m NaCl). Although it is reduced by illuminated chloroplasts, it cannot mediate the photoreduction of NADP in their presence. Data reported elsewhere suggest that its physiological function might be to serve as an electron donor for nitrite reduction.