Pulsed-Field Ablation in Ventricular Myocardium Using a Focal Catheter: The Impact of Application Repetition on Lesion Dimensions

Hagai D. Yavin, Koji Higuchi, Jakub Sroubek, Arwa Younis, Israel Zilberman, Elad Anter*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Pulsed-field ablation (PFA) is a rapid and nonthermal energy with higher selectivity to myocardial tissue in comparison to radiofrequency ablation. However, its effects on ventricular myocardium and titration of lesion dimensions have not been well studied. This study examined the effect of PFA on ventricular myocardium and the influence of application repetition on lesion dimensions. Methods: An 8-Fr lattice catheter with a compressible 9-mm nitinol tip was used with a PFA generator (Affera, Inc) applying a bipolar and biphasic waveform (±1.3-2.0 kV, 4 second per application). We examined the impact of single applications (1×) versus 4 repetitive applications (4×) interspaced by 10 seconds. The latter was performed to determine whether repetitions of a similar electrical field can increase lesion dimensions. Experiments were performed in an in vivo porcine model and a survival period of 24 hours (n=6) or 23±5.4 days (n=6) for evaluation of early and late histopathologic effects. Results: PFA in ventricular myocardium showed repetition dependency. Acute lesion depth and volume increased from 5.6±1.43 mm and 860±362 mm3 to 8.8±0.74 mm and 2383±548 mm3 for 1× and 4× applications, respectively (P<0.001 for both comparisons). This effect was maintained in the chronic lesion phase with lesion depth and volume of 3.9±0.92 mm and 655±286 mm3 compared with 7.3±0.83 mm and 2170±488 mm3, respectively (P<0.001 for both comparisons). Acute lesions showed well demarcated necrotic core without coagulation necrosis while chronic lesions showed tissue thinning with fibro-fatty replacement. Conclusions: PFA in ventricular myocardium exhibits repetition dependency as lesion dimension increases with consecutive applications of a similar electrical field.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)E010375
JournalCirculation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
Issue number9
StatePublished - 1 Sep 2021
Externally publishedYes


FundersFunder number
Affera, Inc.


    • animals
    • catheters
    • heart ventricles
    • myocardium
    • swine


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