Schistosoma infection is one of the most common infectious diseases, limited in the past only to the endemic countries. With the enormous increase in migration and travel, we encounter more and more cases in developed, nonendemic countries. Although the disease has been known for many years from studies in the endemic countries, the new patient population of nonimmune travelers presents with a different clinical pattern that requires further investigation. One of the features of the disease in the nonendemic population is pulmonary involvement that seems to be much more common than previously suspected. The differences between the nonimmune population with the early pulmonary involvement and the population of endemic areas with late pulmonary involvement are summarized in Table 1. Clinicians in the Western countries have a higher chance of encountering the early (acute) form of the disease, although immigrants from endemic countries may present with late (chronic) schistosomiasis. In the differential diagnosis of pulmonary pathology, especially when accompanied by eosinophilia, schistosomal infection should be considered. The travel history of the patient is mandatory for an evaluation.