Pubovaginal sling surgery for simple stress urinary incontinence: Analysis by an outcome score

Asnat Groutz, Jerry G. Blaivas, Michael J. Hyman, David C. Chaikin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: We assessed the results of pubovaginal sling surgery in women with simple stress urinary incontinence using strict subjective and objective criteria. Materials and Methods: Simple incontinence was defined as sphincteric incontinence with no concomitant urge incontinence, pipe stem or fixed scarred urethra, urethral or vesicovaginal fistula, urethral diverticulum, grade 3 or 4 cystocele, or neurogenic bladder. A total of 67 consecutive women with a mean age plus or minus standard deviation of 56 ± 11 years who underwent pubovaginal sling surgery for simple sphincteric incontinence were prospectively followed for 12 to 60 months (mean 33.9 ± 22.2). Treatment outcomes were classified according to a new outcome score. Cure was defined as no urinary loss due to urge or stress incontinence, as documented by 24-hour diary and pad test, with the patient considering herself cured. Failure was defined as poor objective results with the patient considering surgery to have failed. Cases that did not fulfill these cure-failure criteria were considered improved and further classified into a good, fair or poor response. Results: Of the 67 patients 46 (69%) had type II and 21 (31%) had type III incontinence. Preoperative diary and pad tests revealed a mean of 5.9 ± 3.6 stress incontinence episodes and a mean urinary loss of 91.8 ± 81.9 gm. per 24 hours. There were no major intraoperative, perioperative or postoperative complications. Two patients (3%) had persistent minimal stress incontinence and 7 (10%) had new onset urge incontinence within 1 year after surgery. Overall using the strict criteria of our outcome score 67% of the cases were classified as cured and the remaining 33% were classified as improved. The degree of improvement was defined as a good, fair and poor response in 21%, 9% and 3% of patients, respectively. Conclusions: Mid-term outcome results defined by strict subjective and objective criteria confirm that the pubovaginal sling is highly effective and safe surgery for simple sphincteric incontinence. A follow-up of more than 5 years is required to establish the long-term durability of this procedure.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1597-1600
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Urology
Issue number5 I
StatePublished - 2001
Externally publishedYes


  • Bladder
  • Outcome assessment (health care)
  • Stress
  • Urethra
  • Urinary incontinence


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