Psychological adjustment and levels of self esteem in children with visual-motor integration difficulties influences the results of a randomized intervention trial

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Abstract

This study evaluates how much the effects of intervention programs are influenced by pre-existing psychological adjustment and self-esteem levels in kindergarten and first grade children with poor visual-motor integration skills, from low socioeconomic backgrounds. One hundred and sixteen mainstream kindergarten and first-grade children, from low socioeconomic backgrounds, scoring below the 25th percentile on a measure of visual-motor integration (VMI) were recruited and randomly divided into two parallel intervention groups. One intervention group received directive visual-motor intervention (DVMI), while the second intervention group received a non-directive supportive intervention (NDSI). Tests were administered to evaluate visual-motor integration skills outcome. Children with higher baseline measures of psychological adjustment and self-esteem responded better in NDSI while children with lower baseline performance on psychological adjustment and self-esteem responded better in DVMI. This study suggests that children from low socioeconomic backgrounds with low VMI performance scores will benefit more from intervention programs if clinicians choose the type of intervention according to baseline psychological adjustment and self-esteem measures.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)56-64
Number of pages9
JournalResearch in Developmental Disabilities
Volume34
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2013

Keywords

  • Intervention
  • Psychological adjustment
  • Self esteem
  • Visual motor integration

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