Provision of trauma care in asymmetric warfare: a conceptual framework to support the decision to implement frontline care services

F. Salio*, A. Pirisi, E. Bruni, M. Court, K. Peleg, S. Reaiche, A. Redmond, E. Weinstein, I. Hubloue, F. Della Corte, L. Ragazzoni

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Introduction: The emerging trends of asymmetric and urban warfare call for a revision of the needs and the way in which frontline trauma care is provided to affected population. However, there is no consensus on the process to decide when and how to provide such lifesaving interventions in form of Trauma Stabilization Point (TSP). Methods: A three-step Delphi method was used to establish consensus. A focus group discussion was convened to propose a framework and develop the list of twenty-one (21) statements for validation of a group of experts. Results: A panel of twenty-eight (28) experts reviewed the statements and participated to both first and second rounds. Comments and recommendations provided by the FGD and during round 1 were used to analyze the findings of the study. The proposed framework includes five main categories identified as interconnected components that facilitate the decision to implement or not the TSP. A total of sixteen (16) elements distributed across the five categories have been considered as being able to guide the decision to utilize such capability in high-risk security and resource constrained settings. Conclusion: The TSP has the potential to prevent death and disability. The proposed framework and categories add a structure to the decision-making process and represents an important step to support emergency and trauma care planning and implementation efforts.

Original languageEnglish
Article number55
JournalConflict and Health
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2022


FundersFunder number
Vrije Universiteit Brussel
Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale


    • Asymmetric warfare
    • Emergency and trauma care
    • Pre-hospital care
    • Trauma Stabilization Points


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