Protocol for the Identification of Toxic Fractions in Industrial Wastewater Effluents

Avital Gasith, Krzysztof M. Jop, Kenneth L. Dickson, Thomas F. Parkerton, Stan A. Kaczmarek

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review


A toxic fraction identification protocol (TFIP) was developed to identify the fractions(s) of a complex wastewater effluent contributing to toxicity. The TFIP is based on sequential physical/ chemical fractionations of the effluent with associated toxicity testing using the aquatic invertebrate test organism Daphnia. Fractionation treatments used in the TFIP include filtration, aeration, activated carbon, and cation and anion exchange treatments. Before and after each treatment, acute toxicity tests are conducted to determine the efficacy of the treatments in removing toxicity. Selected chemical analyses are used along with toxicity test results to identify the toxic fraction(s) in the wastewater. The TFIP can determine whether or not the toxicity is associated with filterable solids, volatile and/ or biodegradable organics, carbon adsorbable compounds, cationic or anionic inorganic constituents, and charged organic compounds. The TFIP was developed using six industrial effluents possessing a diversity of chemical consitutents. It was validated using a nontoxic industrial effluent spiked with hexavalent chromium and naphthenic acids.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAquatic Toxicology and Hazard Assessment
Subtitle of host publication10th Volume
EditorsWilliam J. Adams, Gary A. Chapman, Wayne G. Landis
PublisherASTM International
Number of pages12
ISBN (Electronic)9780803109780
StatePublished - 1988
Event10th Symposium on Aquatic Toxicology and Hazard Assessment - New Orleans, United States
Duration: 4 May 19866 May 1986

Publication series

NameASTM Special Technical Publication
VolumeSTP 971
ISSN (Print)0066-0558


Conference10th Symposium on Aquatic Toxicology and Hazard Assessment
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityNew Orleans


  • chromium
  • Daphnia pulex
  • naphthenic acids
  • toxic fraction identification
  • toxicity reduction evaluation
  • wastewater effluent toxicity


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