RNA editing is an RNA modification that alters the RNA sequence relative to its genomic blueprint. The most common type of RNA editing is A-to-I editing by double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase (ADAR) enzymes. Editing of a protein-coding region within the RNA molecule may result in non-synonymous substitutions, leading to a modified protein product. These editing sites, also known as “recoding” sites, contribute to the complexity and diversification of the proteome. Recent computational transcriptomic studies have identified thousands of recoding sites in multiple species, many of which are conserved within (but not usually across) lineages and have functional and evolutionary importance. In this chapter we describe the recoding phenomenon across species, consider its potential utility for diversity and adaptation, and discuss its evolution.