OBJECTIVES: Proteinase-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) and PAR-2 have been associated with increased invasiveness and metastasis in human malignancies. The role of PAR-3 has been less investigated. We examined the role of PARs in a human pancreatic adenocarcinoma PANC-1 cell line phenotype in vitro. METHODS: We knocked down PAR-1, PAR-2, or PAR-3, whereas empty vector-infected cells served as controls. Specific peptide agonists of PARs were used to stimulate the receptors. In vitro assays of colony formation, migration, and invasion were used to characterize the phenotypes, and Western analysis was used to follow cell division control protein 42 homolog (CDC42) expression. RESULTS: PAR-1 and PAR-2 knockdowns (KDs) were markedly less, whereas PAR-3 KDs were robustly more migratory and invasive than the controls. Stimulation of PAR-1 or PAR-2 by their peptide agonists increased, whereas PAR-3 agonist reduced the invasion of the control cells. Knockdowns of all three PARs exhibited changes in the expression of CDC42, which correlated with the changes in their invasion. Conversely, stimulation of vector-control cells with PAR-1 or PAR-2 agonists enhanced, whereas PAR-3 agonist reduced the expression of CDC42. In the respective KD cells, the effects of the agonists were abrogated. CONCLUSION: The expression and/or activation of PARs is linked to the invasiveness of PANC-1 cells in vitro, probably via modulation of the expression of CDC42.
- PANC-1 cell line
- pancreatic adenocarcinoma
- proteinaseactivated receptors