Inteins are selfish genetic elements residing in open reading frames that can splice post-translationally, resulting in the ligation of an uninterrupted, functional protein. Like other inteins, the DNA polymerase B (PolB) intein of the halophilic archaeon Haloferax volcanii has an active homing endonuclease (HEN) domain, facilitating its horizontal transmission. Previous work has shown that the presence of the PolB intein exerts a significant fitness cost on the organism compared to an intein-free isogenic H. volcanii. Here, we show that mutation of a conserved residue in the HEN domain not only reduces intein homing but also slows growth. Surprisingly, although this mutation is far from the protein splicing active site, it also significantly reduces in vitro protein splicing. Moreover, two additional HEN domain mutations, which could not be introduced to H. volcanii, presumably due to lethality, also eliminate protein splicing activity in vitro. These results suggest an interplay between HEN residues and the protein splicing domain, despite an over 35 Å separation in a PolB intein homology model. The combination of in vivo and in vitro evidence strongly supports a model of codependence between the self-splicing domain and the HEN domain that has been alluded to by previous in vitro studies of protein splicing with HEN domain-containing inteins.