We experimentally demonstrate the steady-state generation of propagating Wigner-negative states from a continuously driven superconducting qubit. We reconstruct the Wigner function of the radiation emitted into propagating modes defined by their temporal envelopes, using digital filtering. For an optimized temporal filter, we observe a large Wigner logarithmic negativity, in excess of 0.08, in agreement with theory. The fidelity between the theoretical predictions and the states generated experimentally is up to 99%, reaching state-of-the-art realizations in the microwave frequency domain. Our results provide a new way to generate and control nonclassical states, and may enable promising applications such as quantum networks and quantum computation based on waveguide quantum electrodynamics.