The leaching time of antibiotics in growth inhibitory concentrations from polyacrylic bone cements was determined using Escherichia coli, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as target bacteria. The leaching time of the peptide antibiotics vancomycin and polymyxin B nonapeptide was considerably longer than that of gentamicin, novobiocin, and erythromycin. Among the nonpeptide antibiotics, the leaching time of novobiocin lasted longer than did that of gentamicin. The acylated parent polymyxin B antibiotic leached for a considerably shorter period than did the deacylated polymyxin B nonapeptide derivative, suggesting that the lipids impede the leaching process from the cement. Cement beads impregnated with polymyxin B nonapeptide and introduced into the tibia of three rabbits receiving oral novobiocin protected bone infection against a challenge of Pseudomonas aeruginosa that otherwise caused infection in tibias containing gentamicin impregnated cement beads. The peptide antibiotics alone or in combination with other antibiotics (polymyxin B nonapeptide and novobiocin) impregnated in cements for orthopaedic procedures may provide longer periods of protection against a wide range of bacterial pathogens.