The production of ρ0(770) and f(1270) is studied in π-p interactions at 16 GeV/c. By comparison with inclusive K*0 production in the reaction K-p → K*0 + anything, and with inclusive ρ0 production in the reaction pp → ρ0 + anything, it is found that the data can be interpreted in terms of two production processes: the central production of resonances and the fragmentation of the beam particle. For the π-p reaction, the inclusive ρ0 beam fragmentation cross section is 3.1 ± 0.3 mb while that for central production is 1.6 ± 0.5 mb. The ρ0 central production cross section is consistent with increasing with energy as ln s behaviour. The ratio of ρ0 to π- inclusive cross sections (excluding the leading π-) is ∼0.2, independent of energy. The ρ0 to π- ratio increases as a function of pT to a constant value of ∼ 1 2 above 1 GeV/c. The ρ (charged and neutral) and f decays account for (25 ± 4)% and (1.4 ± 0.3)%, respectively, of all pions produced.