Process-based framework for precise neuromodulation

Nitzan Lubianiker, Noam Goldway, Tom Fruchtman-Steinbok, Christian Paret, Jacob N. Keynan, Neomi Singer, Avihay Cohen, Kathrin Cohen Kadosh, David E.J. Linden, Talma Hendler*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

49 Scopus citations


Functional MRI neurofeedback (NF) allows humans to self-modulate neural patterns in specific brain areas. This technique is regarded as a promising tool to translate neuroscientific knowledge into brain-guided psychiatric interventions. However, its clinical implementation is restricted by unstandardized methodological practices, by clinical definitions that are poorly grounded in neurobiology, and by lack of a unifying framework that dictates experimental choices. Here we put forward a new framework, termed ‘process-based NF’, which endorses a process-oriented characterization of mental dysfunctions to form precise and effective psychiatric treatments. This framework relies on targeting specific dysfunctional mental processes by modifying their underlying neural mechanisms and on applying process-specific contextual feedback interfaces. Finally, process-based NF offers designs and a control condition that address the methodological shortcomings of current approaches, thus paving the way for a precise and personalized neuromodulation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)436-445
Number of pages10
JournalNature Human Behaviour
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1 May 2019


FundersFunder number
7th Framework Programme602186
Kamin Program of the Israel Innovation Authority59143
Sagol Network for Brain Research
US Department of DefenseW81XWH-11–2–0008
International Dragonfly Fund
European Commission
Ministry of Science, Technology and Space3-11170
Ministry of Science, Technology and Space
Israeli Centers for Research Excellence693210
Israeli Centers for Research Excellence


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